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MaSatellites: Izvozvo Zvokudenga Zvisungo


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Kwete vakawanda vakasiyiwa avo vanogona kuvhura kuti 1945 ive gore rinofadza - rakaona kuguma kwehondo huru yepasi rese iyo yakambove yakambozivikanwa; Mutungamiri wekuAmerica ari kure kwazvo nokusingaperi Franklin Delano Roosevelt (mutungamiri wedu we32nd) akapfuura nekusingaperi uye akazobudirira naVaMutungamiriri wePurezidhendi Harry S. Truman; IUnited Nations yakarongwa uye yakasimbiswa munaOctober wegore iroro uye, pakupedzisira, Arthur C. Clarke, Akadaro muumbi, nyanzvi yefizikiki, muongorori wemvura, uye munyori wenyanzvi-wenhema, akanyatsofanotaura kusvika uye kushandiswa kukuru kwema satellite anoitwa nevanhu.

Mutungamiri Clarke akazove mumwe wevatatu vatatu veScience-Fiction vanyori venguva yake uye vakabudirira zvakare kufanotaura kuuya kwemafoni uye GPS mu1956. Akanga akadzivirirwa pamabasa ake ehurumende uye yesayenzi muna AD 2000, uye akapfuura mu2008. Akazviita setiraiti Kufanotaura mumagazini yeBritish-ane scientific science Wireless World seye tsamba kune edhari. Iwe unogona kutarisa nayo nehungano iyi: Lakdiva.org/clarke/1945ww/1945ww_feb_058.html.

Fig04Clarke akasika tsamba dze2 gore iroro: rimwe raakatumira kumagazini uye tsamba yechipiri yakazara yakawanda iyo yakaona kushandiswa kwakanyanya. Pakutanga, the setiraiti Pfungwa yakave nezvakafanana zvakanyanya kufanana nechipatara. Yakafanirwa kuva nevashandirwi uye yaizoshanda sekusimudzira refuketi yemarokete pamwe chete nemashandisirwo ayo ekukurukurirana. Akafanotaura kuuya kwemasetellita mune makore gumi nemana, asi zvakaitika zvakanyanya kudarika izvozvo; Zvisinei, pakanga pasina urongwa hwekushandisa kwayo pakubatsira ngarava sezvaakanga ataura. Pfungwa ye geo-stationary satellites (kana kuti orbs inogara munzvimbo imwe uye inotevera Kudzungenyeka kwepasi) yakanga isiri yekutanga kuna Clarke; Akanga achivaka pabasa ra Konstantin Tsiolkovsky.

The Russian setiraiti Sputnik yakawana orbit munguva ye1957 yapera. Mwedzi 4 chete gare gare, mukutanga kwe1958, maUnited States aivewo a setiraiti (Iyo Explorer I) mumutambo. MuC1959, US Navy yakatanga dhizha rokutanga setiraiti: Vanguard 2, iyo haina kushanda zvakajeka uye yakatarwa asi yakateverwa zvishoma kudarika gore gare gare mu 1960 neTIROS 1, iyo yakanga ine chinangwa chimwechete seyakatangira; Gore iroro, kutanga kukurukurirana setiraiti, Echo, yakatangwa. Icho chakanga chisingaiti setiraiti; Chaingova chinhu chakanaka chekutsvaga chiratidzo. 1962 yakaona kuiswa kwekutanga kokutanga kushingaira kukurukurirana ma satellites: Relay uye Telstar. Mu 1964, yekutanga geo-stationary setiraiti, Iyo Syncom 3, yakatangwa. Mumakore achangobva kupfuura, nhamba yemasetelliti mumakwikwi akaenderera mberi kune yeAlex 1000 kana zvakadaro. Asi mashomanana mashomanana ezviuru zvemasimba anogamuchirwa pamifananidzo yakavharidzirwa yepedyo yepasi.

Icho chikuru chekugadzirira setiraiti (Izvo zvatinoziva nezve (kuzivisa mimhanzi inoshamisa) ndiyo International Space Station. Kwete kusanganisira ikozvino 'chibage' chemasetellitiSat3 Yakatangwa munguva pfupi yapfuura, nhamba yemasetelliti yakatumirwa inopfuura makumi matanhatu nemazana mashanu. Ma satellites ano anozadza marudzi akasiyana-siyana uye mabasa, zvakadai se: Intelligence / Reconnaissance (Hondo / Gavhuna), Kutaurirana, uye Kucherechedza Nyika (Kutengeserana, zvakadai sekufanotaura kwemamiriro ekunze uye mapeji ekugadzira), asi kune nzvimbo yekucherechedza, pane Izvo zvinonzi Killer Satellites (Mauto), izvo zvinoshandiswa kudzivirirwa nekuparadza zvombo zvevengi uye kurwisa nekuparadza zvinopesana nemichina yakatakura nzvimbo (kureva mamwe masetelliti). Kusvika ikozvino, United States chete, China neRussia vave vakakwanisa kuparadza zvinangwa munzvimbo. Kushandura satellites kunoshandiswa kuGPS. Biosatellites inogadzirwa kutakura zvinhu zvoupenyu munzvimbo (kazhinji asiri munhu) yekutsvakurudza.

Satellites ane nzira dzakasiyana-siyana dzinoshandiswawo zvakare, izvo zvinosarudzwa zvichienderana nechinangwa chavo (kana kuburikidza nematambudziko uye kuora kwemaitiro). Zvipfeko zvine zvizhinji zvikamu; Idzi ndezvi: Kureba, Centric, Kupembera, Kuda, Nhema, Nheyo, uye Yakafanana. Kureba kwayo ndiyo masetelliti ari kure kubva pakatarisana. Pasi inotenderera ine 4 high, kubva pasi (kusvika ku 1240 makiromita), paruzhinji (kusvika ku 22,236), uye Geosynchronous (22,236 mairaira kumusoro), uye yose kusvika kuHigh Earth Orbit (kupfuura 22,236 mairi asi achiri pasi Chinogadzirisa munda). Ma satellite anoitwa nevanhu mumvura yakakwirira yepasi pose akangoerekana asvibiswa uye anoiswa panzvimbo iyi kuti avadzivirire kubva kune dzimwe satelliti; Rudzi urwu rwemotokari inowanzozonzi Kurasikirwa kana Junk kana Makuva (nenzira yekureva, mwedzi kazhinji inonzi 238,900 mamaira kumusoro kwenyika). Apo a setiraiti Iri mumagetsi ekufamba-famba, ruzha rwaro rwemhuka runenge rwakapoteredza 9800 tsoka nechipiri; Pane iyi yakakwirira, zvinotora chinhu chinonzi 1 zuva rokutenderera pasi redu (zuva rega rega rezuva rinongova pasi pemaminitsi 4 pasi peawa 24) iyo inofananidzwa neHoten rotational speed.

03_Clarke_BeltIyo yekutanga inotenderera ma satellite anoshandiswa, kusvikira ikozvino, ndeye: Geocentric (kumativi ose enyika), Heliocentric (kumativi ose eSuva), uye Areocentric (kumativi ose eMaris). Kupindira kunonyanya kuve kana kwete setiraiti's orbit is circular or elliptical. Kune 4 standard elliptical pasi maitiro: geosynchronous transfer orbit, geostationary transfer transbit, molniya orbit, uye tundra orbit. Rundi rwemagetsi rine tsvina ye63. 4 ° uye inotenderera nyika muzuva risina nguva; Kunyanya, inogara mune imwe nzvimbo yakagadziriswa (asi kwete sezvakangoita seGeostationary orbit) pamusoro penyika, nekumusoro kwayo kunofanana maererano nemuenzaniso wekudzivirira kwayo. Kuwedzerwa kwemotenderera ndiko setiraiti'S variance from pure pure equatorial orbit - naizvozvo, polar orbit inoda kusvika 90 °. Nzira dzenzira dzakasiyana-siyana dzinofukidza maitiro akawandisa akaoma; Imwe yemitemo yakajeka yadzo inodzorerazve orbit, iyo inongoreva kuti inopesana nehutungamiri iyo muviri wekudenga unotenderedzwa; Kudzorerazve orbit hakuwanzoshandiswi nokuti inotora huwandu huwandu hwemotokari kuti ugadzire nguva inogara yakasimba. Nzira dzakasiyana-siyana dzakasvibiswa neSuva-inokonzera uye Mwedzi wepamusoro, Mwedzi wepamusoro inofadza zvikuru zvinonzwika sei. Sun-synchronous orbit is monkey yakasiyana zvachose; Muchimiro chechimiro, the setiraiti Inopfuura nharaunda imwe chete panguva imwechete yezuva zuva rimwe nerimwe; Kana zvichidikanwa, mhirizhonga inogona kuiswa yakadaro iyo inowanzoitika muzuva rezuva, iyo inofadza zvikuru yekufungidzira zvakajeka, uye chero mithunzi iyo inosangana nayo iri pedyo nenzvimbo imwe chete zuva rimwe nerimwe.

Sezvakatsanangurwa pamberi, masetelliti ari mumakwikwi ekufananidza anoita shanduko imwechete kumativi ose ekudenga anotenderera mumhepo iyo iyo muviri inotenderera muSat1 nguva yakafanana yenguva inotora muviri iwoyo kuti uite kamwe chete; zvose zvakasiyana-siyana zvakasiyana-siyana zvinokonzera maitiro zvakasiyana-siyana kana kugadziridzwa kweizvi. Apo a setiraiti Kana muviri wekudenga unotenderera muviri wakakura wekudenga unofanana nedzimwe kunze kwe0 ° uye unotaridzwa kubva panzvimbo yakatarwa (inowanzofungidzirwa kuva pasi penyika), muenzaniso wekufamba kweiyo setiraiti, Kana ichitarirwa nguva dzese, inoratidzika kutarisa zvimwe zvakasiyana-siyana zvechimiro chakaipfigwa 8 mudenga; Iyi muenzaniso inonzi analemma. Kana kutenderera uye kutenderera kune nguva dzose uye zvakafanana, zvakanyatsoumbwa zvechimiro ichi chakanaka 8 pattern hachizoshanduki. Zvinhu zvakasiyana-siyana zvinogadzirisa maitiro chaiwo emvumo yekuti 'mutated' chimiro masere. A setiraiti uye chitenderedzwa chechimiro chechimiro chechina che0 ° chinonzi chiine Geostationary (aka "Clarke" - mushure mokunge munyori wacho) orbit. Inoratidzika kuti inogara munzvimbo chaiye yakaenzana nepasi nguva dzose pamakiromita emakiromita 22,236 kumusoro kwepasi. It inooneka Chimisa; Iyo, chaizvoizvo, ichivhuvhuta denga pamakumbo e9800 nechipiri kuti ichengetedze nzvimbo yayo kune nyika.

Mushure mokutanga kwema satellites, takatanga kuvaka mashetera mazhinji akaoma uye anodhura, kuwedzera kune mamwe mabhero nemaridzi, mamwe masvikiro, mafungiro ekukurukurirana mabheji. Nenguva yakareba, setiraiti Zvakanga zvingogoneka kune dzimwe hurumende uye nhamba shomanana yemakambani makuru, nemhaka yezvinodhura uye unyanzvi hwehuchenjeri hunoda kuchengetedza setiraiti Mumutambo. Iyi nzira yatora kuchinja kukuru kwekupedzisira; Mamiriro matsva akabuda. Chinhu chikuru mumasetellita iye zvino chiri chiduku uye chine mari. Zvinonzi nano-satellites zvakarova matenga; Iyo "1- rocket / 1-setiraiti"Paradigm haisisiri inviolate. Izvo zvipfeko zvakakura zvema satellites zvichiri kudiwa - musandiita kuti ndiite zvakaipa; Asi iyi inotevera inotevera setiraiti Tech inopa mikana mitsva. Iye zvino, kuiswa kumwe chete kunogona kuva nepamusoro kwemasatelliti makumi matatu. Nokuda kwekufambira mberi kwekambaniki, mazhinji ema satellite maduku anogona kuva nemafana akafanana neSputnik, kunze kwekuti ari maduku, akadhura uye anonyanya kuwanda, zvikuru Nekukurumidza. Pamusana pokudhura uye zvido zvepabonde, zvimwe chete nzvimbo dzakasarudzwa paNyika zvinogona kuchinjwa / zvichiratidzwa ne setiraiti Nguva dzose. Ikozvino ikozvino kutanga kuchinja; Kusvika kwema satelliti maduku uye asina kutengesa kuchazarura mhando dzakawanda dzezvitsva zvitsva mukukurukurirana, kuparidzira nekutsvakurudza.


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Ryan Salazar

Editor-In-Chief, Muparidzi at Broadcast Beat Magazine, LLC.
Ryan akatanga kushanda mumashambapiti uye kumashure ekugadzirwa kwemashure pazera remakore gumi nevaviri! Akabudisa mapurogiramu ezerevhizheni, akavaka zvivako zvakakura zvekugadzirwa kwemashure, zvakanyorerwa mamwe emabhizimisi anotungamirira mabhuku uye akanga ari injini yekuridzira kwemakore anenge gumi. Ryan akambonyora nezve Broadcast Engineering Magazine, Creative COW uye mapurojekiti ake ave akataridzwa mumabhuku akawanda.
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Nzvimbo dzekupedzisira dze Ryan Salazar (ona zvose)

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